Friday, 4 November 2016

daily life science

How Does GPS Work?et

graphic showing earth and a constellation of GPS satellites
Earth is surrounded by navigation satellites. Credit: NOAA.
Humans have looked to the skies to find their way since
ancient times. Ancient sailors used the constellations in the night sky to figure out where they were and where they were going.
Today, all we need is a simple hand-held GPS (short for Global Positioning System) receiver to figure out exactly where we are anywhere in the world. But we still need objects high in the sky to figure out where we are and how we get to other places.
Instead of stars, we use satellites. Over 30 navigation satellites are zipping around high above Earth. These satellites can tell us exactly where we are.

What is GPS?
cartoon of a boy holding a GPS receiver with a satellite and ground station in the background.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is made up of satellites, ground stations, and receivers.
GPS is a system. It’s made up of three parts: satellites, ground stations, and receivers.
Satellites act like the stars in constellations—we know where they are supposed to be at any given time.
The ground stations use radar to make sure they are actually where we think they are.
A receiver, like you might find in your phone or in your parents car, is constantly listening for a signal from these satellites. The receiver figures out how far away they are from some of them.
Once the receiver calculates its distance from four or more satellites, it knows exactly where you are. Presto! From miles up in space your location on the ground can be determined with incredible precision! They can usually determine where you are within a few yards of your actual location. More high-tech receivers, though, can figure out where you are to within a few inches!
The ancient sailors of history would be flabbergasted by the speed and ease of pinpointing your location today.

Why is the sky blue?

It's easy to see that the sky is blue.Have you ever wondered why?

A lot of other smart people have, too. And it took a long time to figure it out!
blue sky and clouds illustration

The light from the sun looks white. But it is really made up of all the colors of the rainbow.
A prism separates white light into the colors of the rainbow.
When white light shines through a prism, the light is separated into all its colors. A prism is a specially shaped crystal.
If you visited The Land of the Magic Windows, you learned that the light you see is just one tiny bit of all the kinds of light energy beaming around the universe--and around you!
Like energy passing through the ocean, light energy travels in waves, too. Some light travels in short, "choppy" waves. Other light travels in long, lazy waves. Blue light waves are shorter than red light waves.
Different colors of light have different wavelengths.
All light travels in a straight line unless something gets in the way and does one of these things:—
  • reflect it (like a mirror)
  • bend it (like a prism)
  • or scatter it (like molecules of the gases in the atmosphere)

Sunlight reaches Earth's atmosphere and is scattered in all directions by all the gases and particles in the air. Blue light is scattered in all directions by the tiny molecules of air in Earth's atmosphere. Blue is scattered more than other colors because it travels as shorter, smaller waves. This is why we see a blue sky most of the time.
Atmosphere scatters blue light more than other colors.
Closer to the horizon, the sky fades to a lighter blue or white. The sunlight reaching us from low in the sky has passed through even more air than the sunlight reaching us from overhead. As the sunlight has passed through all this air, the air molecules have scattered and rescattered the blue light many times in many directions.
Atmosphere scatters blue light more than other colors
Also, the surface of Earth has reflected and scattered the light. All this scattering mixes the colors together again so we see more white and less blue.

What makes a red sunset?

As the sun gets lower in the sky, its light is passing through more of the atmosphere to reach you. Even more of the blue light is scattered, allowing the reds and yellows to pass straight through to your eyes.
Red sky at sunset
Red sun at sunset.

Sometimes the whole western sky seems to glow. The sky appears red because larger particles of dust, pollution, and water vapor in the atmosphere reflect and scatter more of the reds and yellows.

How do hurricanes form?

Hurricane Fran
Hurricane Fran. Image made from GOES satellite data.
Hurricanes are the most violent storms on Earth. People call these storms by other names, such as typhoons or cyclones, depending on where they occur. The scientific term for all these storms is tropical cyclone. Only tropical cyclones that form over the Atlantic Ocean or eastern Pacific Ocean are called "hurricanes."
Whatever they are called, tropical cyclones all form the same way.
World map showing area where cyclones occur.
Tropical cyclones are like giant engines that use warm, moist air as fuel. That is why they form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. The warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface. Because this air moves up and away from the surface, there is less air left near the surface. Another way to say the same thing is that the warm air rises, causing an area of lower air pressure below.
Cumulonimbus cloud
A cumulonimbus cloud. A tropical cyclone has so many of these, they form huge, circular bands.
Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then that "new" air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. As the warm air continues to rise, the surrounding air swirls in to take its place. As the warmed, moist air rises and cools off, the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean's heat and water evaporating from the surface.
Storms that form north of the equator spin counterclockwise. Storms south of the equator spin clockwise. This difference is because of Earth's rotation on its axis.
As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the center. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.
Tropical cyclone cross-section
If you could slice into a tropical cyclone, it would look something like this. The small red arrows show warm, moist air rising from the ocean's surface, and forming clouds in bands around the eye. The blue arrows show how cool, dry air sinks in the eye and between the bands of clouds. The large red arrows show the rotation of the rising bands of clouds.

When the winds in the rotating storm reach 39 mph, the storm is called a "tropical storm." And when the wind speeds reach 74 mph, the storm is officially a "tropical cyclone," or hurricane.
Tropical cyclones usually weaken when they hit land, because they are no longer being "fed" by the energy from the warm ocean waters. However, they often move far inland, dumping many inches of rain and causing lots of wind damage before they die out completely.
Tropical cyclone categories:
CategoryWind Speed (mph)Damage at LandfallStorm Surge (feet)
5157 or higherCatastrophic19+
The two GOES satellites keep their eyes on hurricanes from far above Earth's surface—22,300 miles above, to be exact! (Learn more about this kind of orbit.)
These satellites, built by NASA and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), save lives by helping weather forecasters predict and warn people where and when these severe storms will hit land.

Wednesday, 2 November 2016





Anna Rajam George (née Malhotra) (born July 17, 1927) was the first female Indian Administrative Service officer of India. She belonged to the 1951 batch of the IAS and was married to R. N. Malhotra, her batchmate.[1][2]
She was born in 1927 in Niranam, Alleppey as the daughter of Ottavelil O. A. George and Anna Paul. She was the granddaughter of Malayalam author Pailo Paul. She grew up inCalicut and completed her intermediate from Providence Women's College and bachelor's degree ftom Malabar Christian College in Calicut. In 1949 she obtained her master's in English literature from Madras University. She passed the civil services examination in 1950. Her first posting as a civil servant was in Madras State and reportedly chief ministerC. Rajagopalachari was sceptical about giving a woman the charge of a district sub collector and instead offered her a post in the Secretariat. She did not comply and was eventually posted as a sub collector in Madras State, becoming the first woman to do so. She was also the first Malayali woman to hold a secretarial post in the central government. She was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1989.[3]

Kiran Bedi (born 9 June 1949) is an Indian politician, social activist, former tennis player and a retired police officer. Bedi joined the Indian Police Service (IPS) in 1972, becoming its first woman officer.[2]
As a teenager, Bedi became the national junior tennis champion in 1966. Between 1965 and 1978, she won several titles at national and state-level championships. After joining IPS, Bedi served in Delhi, Goa and Mizoram. She started her career as a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP) in Chanakyapuri area of Delhi, and won the President's Police Medal in 1979. Next, she moved toWest Delhi, where she brought a reduction in crimes against women. Subsequently, as a traffic police officer, she oversaw traffic arrangements for the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi and the 1983 CHOGM meet in Goa. As DGP of North Delhi, she launched a campaign against drug abuse, which evolved into the Navjyoti Delhi Police Foundation (renamed to Navjyoti India Foundation in 2007).
In May 1993, she was posted to the Delhi Prisons as inspector general (IG).She introduced several reforms at Tihar Jail, which gained worldwide acclaim and won her the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 1994. In 2003, Bedi became the first woman to be appointed the United Nations civilian police adviser. She resigned in 2007, to focus on social activism and writing. She has written several books, and runs the India Vision Foundation. During 2008–11, she also hosted a court show Aap Ki Kachehri. She was one of the key leaders of the 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement, and joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in January 2015
Kartavyam (1990), is a Telugu film based on Bedi. It was dubbed into Tamil as Vyjayanthi IPS.
·         The movie was remade in Hindi as Tejaswini.[73]
eeta Peshawaria Menon and Anu Peshawaria (2014). Kiran Bedi – Making of the Top Cop. Diamond. ISBN 9789351654988.. A 32-page comic book biography authored by Kiran Bedi's sisters Reeta and Anu[8]

Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya (Hindi: कंचन चौधरी भट्टाचार्य) is a former Director General of Police in Uttarakhand Police and recently turned to politics, ran as a candidate of Aam Aadmi Party from Haridwar, Uttarakhand in the 2014 Indian general election. She was the first woman to become Director General of Police of a state and retired on 31 October 2007 from service.[1] She was the second woman IPS officer in the country after Kiran Bedi.[2

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindustani: [ˈɪnːdɪrə ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] (  listen); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was a key 20th century stateswoman, a central figure of the Indian National Congress party, and to date the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the only child of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. She served as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, making her the second-longest-serving Prime Minister after her father.
Gandhi served as her father's personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as prime minister between 1947 and 1964. She was elected Congress President in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964, Gandhi refused to enter Congress party leadership contest and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government led by Lal Bahadur Shastri. In Congress' party parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966 upon the death of Shastri, she defeated her rival, Morarji Desai, to become leader and thus succeed Shastri as the prime minister of India.
As the Prime Minister of India, Gandhi was known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regionalhegemon of South Asia. Gandhi also presided over a controversial state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree. She was assassinated in 1984 by her Sikh bodyguards a few months after she ordered the storming of the Harmandir Sahibin Amritsar to counter the Punjab insurgency.

Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997) also known as Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, MC,[5] was an Albanian Roman Catholic religious sister and missionary.[6] She was born in Skopje (modern Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet in theOttoman Empire. After having lived in Macedonia for some eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.
Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries. They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; dispensaries and mobile clinics; children's and family counselling programmes; orphanages; and schools. Members must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, as well as a fourth vow, to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor".[7]
Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In 2003, she was beatified as "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta". A second miracle was credited to her intercession by Pope Francis, in December 2015, paving the way for her to be recognised as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.[5][8]
A controversial figure both during her life and after her death, Mother Teresa was widely admired by many for her charitable works, but was also widely criticised, particularly for her opposing both abortion and contraception. She also received criticism for substandard conditions in the hospices for which she was responsible.[9][10][11][12] Her official biography was written by an Indian civil servant, Navin Chawla, and published in 1992

Amrita Pritam   listen (help·info) (31 August 1919 – 31 October 2005) was an Indian writer and poet, who wrote in Punjabi andHindi.[1] She is considered the first prominent woman Punjabi poet, novelist, and essayist, and the leading 20th-century poet of thePunjabi language, who is equally loved on both sides of the India-Pakistan border. With a career spanning over six decades, she produced over 100 books, of poetry, fiction, biographies, essays, a collection of Punjabi folk songs and an autobiography that were translated into several Indian and foreign languages.[2][3]
She is most remembered for her poignant poem, Ajj aakhaan Waris Shah nu (Today I invoke Waris Shah – "Ode to Waris Shah"), anelegy to the 18th-century Punjabi poet, an expression of her anguish over massacres during the partition of India. As a novelist, her most noted work was Pinjar (The Skeleton) (1950), in which she created her memorable character, Puro, an epitome of violence against women, loss of humanity and ultimate surrender to existential fate; the novel was made into an award-winning film, Pinjar in 2003.[4][5]
When the former British India was partitioned into the independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947, she migrated from Lahore, to India, though she remained equally popular in Pakistan throughout her life, as compared to her contemporaries like Mohan Singh and Shiv Kumar Batalvi.
Known as the most important voice for the women in Punjabi literature, in 1956, she became the first woman to win the Sahitya Akademi Award for her magnum opus, a long poem, Sunehade (Messages),[6] later she received the Bharatiya Jnanpith, one of India's highest literary awards, in 1982 for Kagaz Te Canvas (The Paper and the Canvas). The Padma Shri came her way in 1969 and finally, Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian award, in 2004, and in the same year she was honoured with India's highest literary award, given by the Sahitya Akademi (India's Academy of Letters), the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship given to the "immortals of literature" for lifetime achievement.[7
BornAugust 31, 1919, Gujranwala, Pakistan
DiedOctober 31, 2005, Delhi

Ashapoorna Devi (Bengali: আশাপূর্ণা দেবী), also Ashapurna Debi or Asha Purna Devi, was a prominent Bengali novelist and poet. She was born on 8 January 1909. She has been widely honoured with a number of prizes and awards. She was awarded 1976Jnanpith Award and the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1976; D.Litt by the Universities of Jabalpur, Rabindra Bharati,Burdwan and Jadavpur. Vishwa Bharati University honoured her with Deshikottama in 1989. For her contribution as a novelist and short story writer, the Sahitya Akademi conferred its highest honour, the Fellowship, in 1994. She died in 1995.[1

Sarojini Naidu; also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India, was an Indian independence activist and poet. Wikipedia
BornFebruary 13, 1879, Hyderabad
DiedMarch 2, 1949, Lucknow

Sarojini Naidu (born as Sarojini Chattopadhyay) (Bengali: সরোজিনী চট্টোপাধ্যায়); also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India,[2] was an Indian independence activist and poet. Naidu served as the first governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudhfrom 1947 to 1949;[3] the first woman to become the governor of an Indian state.[4] She was the second woman to become the president of the Indian National Congress in 1925 and the first Indian woman to do so.[5][6]

Justice Leila Seth was the first woman judge on the Delhi High Court and the first woman to become Chief Justice of a state High Court.
20 October 1930 (age 85)
Lucknow, India
Studied in London

Justice M. Fathima Beevi was the first female judge to be appointed to the Supreme Court of India (1989)[1][2][3][4][5][6] and the firstMuslim woman to be appointed to any higher judiciary. She is the first woman judge of a Supreme Court of a nation in India and Asia.[7] On her retirement from the court she served as a member of the National Human Rights Commission and as Governor inTamil Nadu (1997–2001).[2][8][9]
he later went on to become Governor of Tamil Nadu on 25 January 1997

Sucheta Kriplani was an Indian freedom fighter and politician. She was India's first woman Chief Minister, serving as the head of the Uttar Pradesh government from 1963 to 1967. Wikipedia
BornJune 25, 1908, Ambala
DiedDecember 1, 1974, New Delhi
SpouseJ. B. Kripalani (m. 1938)

Meira Kumar is an Indian politician and a five time Member of Parliament. She was elected unopposed as the first woman Speaker of Lok Sabha and served from 2009 to 2014. She is a lawyer and a former diplomat. Wikipedia
BornMarch 31, 1945 (age 70), Patna

Sushma Swaraj is an Indian politician, former lawyer and the current Minister of External Affairs of India, in office since 26 May 2014.Wikipedia
BornFebruary 14, 1952 (age 64), Ambala Cantonment
SpouseSwaraj Kaushal (m. 1975)

Kamini Roy
Kamini Roy was a leading Bengali poet, social worker and feminist in British India . She was the first woman honours graduate in British India. Wikipedia
BornOctober 12, 1864, Bengal Presidency
DiedSeptember 27, 1933, Hazaribagh

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule was an Indian social reformer and poet. Along with her husband, Jyotirao Phule, she played an important role in improving women's rights in India during British rule. Wikipedia
Born: January 3, 1831, Satara district
Died: March 10, 1897
Spouse: Jyotirao Phule (m. 1840–1890)

Kadambini Ganguly
Kadambini Bose
18 July 1861
Bhagalpur, British India

3 October 1923 (Age: 63)
Kolkata, British India
Alma mater
Doctor, women's emancipation

Kadambini Ganguly (Bengali: কাদম্বিনী গাঙ্গুলি) (18 July 1861 – 3 October 1923) and Chandramukhi Basu were the first two female graduates from India and the entire British Empire. She was also the first South Asian female physician, trained in western medicine, to graduate in South Asia. Anandi Gopal Joshi, another Indian, graduated as a physician the same year (1886) in the United States

Durba Banerjee was the first pilot of Indian Airlines in 1956 and the first Indian woman commercial pilot